Whether the home is small or large, the plumbing system always appears to be a complex mixture of pipes and complicated at times. However, the plumbing system is not that complex and a study of the logistics of house plumbing, which is quite straightforward, will help in clearing your doubts.

Gravity, pressure, and water seeking level are what the process of plumbing relies on. A home’s plumbing system mainly comprises of pipes that supply hot and cold water, Vent pipes, drain pipes, fixtures, water storage tanks, faucets, and different types of valves. These all fittings are usually made up of plastic, copper or iron that is galvanized, lead, clay, PVC, etc.

Objectives Of A Plumbing System

• A perfectly designed plumbing system will ensure the smooth flow of water to all fixtures and faucets in the home and would be able to carry off the wastewater without clogging.

• A regular check on leakage should be conducted to ensure zero water waste

• A supply of pure drinking water should be made

• Ensure that the potable water and wastewater are not intermixed.

• Providing the prevention of any foul gases generated from the sewage in the homes and proper measures for its escape

• A facility of utility holes for regular cleaning of the Drain Pipes

The water you get at your home comes from the municipality. Any home’s plumbing system is mainly classified into two sub-plumbing systems which can be named as Water Inflow and Water Outflow.


Water Inflow (Supply) System

The Water Inflow is responsible for bringing the fresh water from the tank in a full force. The water should come in high pressure such that it can travel everywhere easily, i.e., upstairs, corners, outside or it can be any water required region of the home.

There is a meter attached to the house which records the amount of water used. Besides this meter is located the main water supply valve which can release the water as well as shut the water of the entire house. In an emergency like an urgent plumbing repair, bursting of a pipe, we can turn off this valve.

Water Outflow (Drainage) System

The Water Outflow system, popularly known as drain-water-vest (DWV), is responsible for taking all the wastewater out from the home areas like sinks, bathtubs, showers, toilets and few water appliances to drainage. This should work efficiently, and we should be ensured that there are no clogs in any outlets.

Proper pressure is required to be maintained in the drain pipes for efficient drainage, and gravity works here by pulling down all the waste materials. These pipes are hidden within the walls or under the floors, which tries to ventilate the sewage gases in such a manner that they don’t build up in the house. Every sink in the house has a trap (S-shaped section of a pipe) attached to it, which is very crucial for the drainage.

Plumbing System For Kitchens

The kitchens are the heart of any house, and this area needs a proper plumbing setup. The plumbing system over here should hold the water supplies to faucets for both, hot and cold water sinks comprising a waste line, a gas supply pipe, inflow and outflow pipes for water appliances like dishwashers, disposers, instant hot water makers, and icemakers.


Plumbing Systems For Bathrooms

The bathroom is the corner of the house that cleans you up from inwards to outwards. This area usually includes sinks, showers, toilets, and bathtubs. A proper plumbing system needs to be employed here such that the water supply and waste exit should take place efficiently, organized, and in a leak-proof way.

There should be a supply of both hot and cold water, which is explained below. The water comes from the municipal supply to the main supply of the house through the meter and then to the fixtures. As opposed to this, in DWV, the wastewater is collected from the fixtures and toilets and sent to the septic system.

Hot Water And Cold Water System

The cold water is immediately available from the main supply. For hot water, a system is designed such that the water from the main supply passes to the water heater through a pipe, where it gets heated. The hot water is then passed through a hot water line to all the areas requiring hot water. For the boiling water, a thermostat is laid on the heater, which maintains the temperature in a range of 140 degrees to 120 degrees, which the user can set in the device as per his need.


The supply and drainage are two separate systems which do not overlap each other. However, there is a bridge between the supply and drainage, which is usually referred to as Fixture. The home devices which take fresh water and give out wastewater is called a fixture like tubs, washing machines, sinks, toilets which are designed in a way that keeps the water inflow and outflow isolated from each other.

However, it should be noted that there are certain individual valves which supply water to some regions of the home, and they have no connection with the main supply. This means if a repair is needed in any of these individual valves, there is no need to shut off the main valve.

There are also individual self-automated valves that are the check valve fixed at some regions of the house which the water supplies in just one way. This means the water is only supplied in a single direction and prevents the backflow. These valves, being self-automated, do not require any assistance to open and close. You can have more information regarding these valves from XHVAL check valve.



Bacteria are believed to reside in the premises of the plumbing system. Certain areas of the house where these bacteria tend to grow are the faucet, shower heads, water heater and along the pipe walls. When these get worst, they have a high tendency to cause waterborne diseases like Cholera and Typhoid. Hence a regular check and cleaning process should be undertaken to avoid any health issue.


If you are going to be a first-time homeowner or are looking for a renovation of your home, then you must have a good understanding of all the electric as well as plumbing systems assembled in the house.

This knowledge would make you understand the types of subsystems in the overall Plumbing system and determine all the elements that fix together to run the home efficiently. We hope we gave you clarity on the whole plumbing system.